793,263.28 TOE of energy supplied

The total energy supplied to the country in 2022 was 793,263.28 Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (TOE), against the total energy demand of 752,441.03 TOE, with supply exceeding its demand by 40,822.25 TOE.

This has been unfurled in the ministry of energy and natural resources’ (MoENR), recent publication, which also states that the total energy supply in 2022 saw a significant increase from 2014’s 650,220 TOE, corresponding to a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 2.52%. Similarly, the total energy consumption increased from 2014’s 650,220 TOE, representing a CAGR of 1.84%.

Thermal energy sources, which include coal and its derivatives, biomass, and petroleum products, constituted a significant portion of the energy mix, making up 62.4% or 495,244.5 TOE of the total energy supply; the remaining 37.6% or 298,018.5 TOE was attributed to electricity.

In terms of the energy mix, electricity constituted the largest portion of the total TOE, followed closely by biomass at 25.2% or 199,955.8 TOE, coal and its derivatives at 19.6% or 155,699.5 TOE, and petroleum products at 17.6% or 139,589.2 TOE.

However, electricity from alternative renewable sources like solar and wind contributed less than 1% combined. 

Meanwhile, from the total energy consumption of 752,441.03 TOE in 2022, the energy demanded by the industry Sector was the largest. Building and Transport Sectors also consumed significant amounts of energy, while other sectors accounted for a smaller portion.

The energy demand of the building sector accounted for 154,176.55 TOE, making up 20.5% of the total energy consumption. The Industry Sector consumed the largest share at 470,497.7 TOE, representing 62.5% of the total.

Energy demand in the transport sector followed with 108,768.1 TOE, accounting for 14.5% of the total energy consumption. The remaining energy consumption, totaling 18,998.7 TOE or 2.5% of the total energy was attributed to various other sectors.

Meanwhile, thermal energy dominated as the primary source of energy consumption, making up 60.4%, while the remaining portion was attributed to electricity. Looking at thermal energy, of the total petroleum consumption, diesel was the most consumed petroleum product at 91,727.4 TOE, representing 66.8% of the total consumed. Comparatively, petrol was consumed at a much lower level, with 29,250.1 TOE consumed, accounting for only 21.3% of total consumption.

LPG had a consumption level of 12,728.3 TOE, representing 9.3% of the total consumption. This is notably higher than kerosene, which had the lowest consumption among petroleum products, with a consumption level of 2,782.56 TOE, representing only 3.03% of total consumption.

Similarly, furnace oil was reported to be the least consumed product, with a consumption of only 819.8 TOE, which constituted a mere 0.6% of the total consumption amount. This was the lowest consumption among all the petroleum products.

Coal and its derivatives contributed to 130,370.7 TOE and petroleum products and biomass consumed 137,307.1 TOE and 186,744.6 TOE each. 

Across different sectors, the energy demand in the building sector was 154,176.55 TOE, with biomass being the most consumed fuel at 97,750.5 TOE, accounting for 63.4% of the total fuel consumed. Electricity was the second most consumed fuel at 43,201.8 TOE, representing 28.0% of total fuel consumption followed by LPG with the third most consumed fuel at 12,213.1 TOE, accounting for 7.9% of total fuel consumption, and kerosene was the second least consumed fuel at only 936.0 TOE, representing 0.6%.

Similarly, in the industrial sector, electricity was the largest source of fuel consumption, accounting for 52.3% or 245,873.8 TOE. Coal & derivatives was the second largest source of fuel consumption, accounting for 27.7% or 130,370.74 TOE and biomass consumption was 18.9% or 88,993.81 TOE in 2022. .

The road transport in the transport sector exhibited significantly higher energy demands as compared to aviation, largely due to the greater energy requirements associated with landbased vehicles. Aviation consumed a total of 1,805.04 TOE, primarily from kerosene.

Meanwhile, road transport had a much higher energy consumption of 106,963.10 TOE. While aviation relied solely on kerosene as its energy source, road transport utilized a combination of electricity, diesel, and petrol. Notably, road transport derived 49.01 TOE of energy from electricity, which was not used in aviation. Diesel was the primary energy source for road transport, accounting for 78,745.37 TOE, followed by petrol at 28,168.71 TOE.

Sherab Dorji from Thimphu