The overall expenditure for the 11th FYP was Nu 0.247bn of which the total current expenditure was Nu 0.115bn. Capital expenditure accounted for Nu 0.108bn, according to the review report on implementation of the 11th five year plan.
The report also states that Nu .001bn was for lending and Nu 0.23bn for repayment of loans.
Current expenditure topped the overall expenditure followed by capital expenditure, repayment of loans and lending expenditure. Top expenditure included expenditure on the structure of roads, followed by buildings and capital grants provided to individuals and non-profit organizations.
The Royal Audit Authority (RAA) conducted an assessment in the Gross National Happiness Commission (GHNC), 10 ministries, nine Autonomous agencies and Government Performance Management Division (GPMD) covering the period 2013-14 to 2017-18.
The review was carried out with an overall objective to ascertain to what extent input deliverables, activities, targets/goals and objectives set in the 11th FYP were achieved.
The review aimed to look into the impacts given the substantial amount of resources involved and important economic development programs. Therefore, the RAA not only looked at “What has been done”, but also “what has not been done” to achieve the ultimate objective of the 11th FYP.
According to the RAA report, the achievement of average economy growth rate was 5.59% over the plan period with an increase in GDP per capita from US$ 2,464 in 2013 to US$ 3,543 in 2018 and increase in total GDP from Nu 105.38bn in 2013 to Nu 182.82bn in 2018.
Some of the significant achievements include improvement in foreign reserve position from US$ 916.86mn in 2013 to US$ 1,140mn in 2018. There was an increase in hydropower revenue generation from Nu 15.66bn in 2013 to Nu 18.58bn in 2017 and an increase in contribution from mining sector from Nu 238.62mn in 2013 to Nu 329.47mn in 2017.
In order to realize the overall objective of the 11th FYP, 16 National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) were identified. To achieve 16 NKRAs, Sector Key Result Areas (SKRAs) and Dzongkhag Key Result Areas (DKRAs) with corresponding Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were formulated based on the four pillars of GNH to ensure that all the sectors contribute towards strengthening them.
The SKRAs, DKRAS and their KPIs form the basis for monitoring the performance of various sectors including local governments.
The specific objectives were to review the formulation process of targets and indicators at the national and agency levels and to ascertain the extent to which the overall objective of 11th FYP were realized by assessing the achievement of National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) and Sector Key Result Areas (SKRAs).
On an overall note, the 11th FYP has witnessed commendable progress in all projects and programs envisaged at the beginning of the plan.
Agencies were able to implement some major activities that were not originally in the plan. However, despite the commendable progress achieved, several targets under the KPIs of the NKRAs were found not achieved fully.
For instance, while income poverty has been reduced from 12% in 2012 to 8.2% in 2016, which by any measure is commendable, it fell short of achieving the target set at 5%.
Likewise, the ratio of females to male in tertiary education improved from 71% in 2013 to 83% as of 2017, however it fell short of the target set at 90%.
The RAA observed lack of basis for the selection of KPIs and setting of targets. Therefore, to some extent the non-achievement of targets could be attributed to no proper and systematic setting of targets.
The review revealed that intended objective of the 11th FYP was not fully realized in terms of achieving the targets set, as 16 NKRAs and 300 SKRAs were not achieved fully.
Further, inadequacies were observed in the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of plan by the GNHC. No comprehensive information and data was made available to assess the progress of the 11th FYP as a result of lack of standardized information recording and monitoring and evaluation reporting.
With the current system of information management the reliability of data is highly questionable. Based on the findings, the RAA has provided three recommendations aimed at improving the areas requiring further course of action for improvement in making the development plans more successful and impactful henceforth.
The 11th FYP was implemented from the year 2013-14 to 2017-18 with an overall objective “Self reliance and Inclusive Green Socio-Economic Development”.
Kinley Yonten from Thimphu